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Dr. Legon's Publications

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Legon W, Strohman A, In A, Stebbins K, Payne B. Non-invasive neuromodulation of sub-regions of the human insula differentially affect pain processing and heart-rate variability. bioRxiv [Preprint]. 2023 May 5:2023.05.05.539593. doi: 10.1101/2023.05.05.539593. PMID: 37205396; PMCID: PMC10187309.

Strohman A, In A, Stebbins K, Legon W. Evaluation of a Novel Acoustic Coupling Medium for Human Low-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Neuromodulation Applications. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2023 Jun;49(6):1422-1430. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2023.02.003. Epub 2023 Mar 6. PMID: 36889994.

Prada, F., Franzini, A., Moosa, S., Padilla, F., Moore, D., Solbiati, L., ... & Legon, W. (2020). In vitro and in vivo characterization of a cranial window prosthesis for diagnostic and therapeutic cerebral ultrasound. Journal of Neurosurgery, 1(aop), 1-13.

Legon, W., Adams, S., Bansal, P., Patel, P. D., Hobbs, L., Ai, L., ... & Gillick, B. T. (2020). A retrospective qualitative report of symptoms and safety from transcranial focused ultrasound for neuromodulation in humans. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-10.

Song, Y., Adams, S., & Legon, W. (2020). Intermittent theta burst stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex accelerates visuomotor adaptation with delayed feedback. Cortex.

Ai L. Bansal P. Mueller JK. Legon W. Effects of transcranial focused ultrasound on human primary motor cortex using 7T fMRI: a pilot study (2018). BMC Neurosci. doi:

Legon W. Bansal P. Tyshynsky R. Ai L. Mueller JK. Transcranial focused ultrasound neuromodulation of the human primary motor cortex. (2018). Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 10007. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28230-1.

Legon W. Bansal P. Ai L. Mueller J.K. Meekins G. Gillick B. (2018). Safety of transcranial focused ultrasound for human neuromodulation. Bioarxiv. doi:

Legon W. Ai L. Bansal P. Mueller J.K. (2018). Neuromodulation with single-element transcranial focused ultrasound in human thalamus. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018; 00:1-12.

Guo H. Hamilton M. Offutt S. Gloeckner C. Li T. Kim Y. Legon W. Alford J.K. Lim H.H. (2018). Ultrasound produces extensive brain activation via a cochlear pathway. Neuron (98) 5, 1020 – 1030. doi:

Mueller J.K. Ai L. Bansal P. Legon W. (2017). Numerical evaluation of the skull for human neuromodulation with transcranial focused ultrasound. J. Neural Eng. 14 066012.

Mueller J.K. Ai L. Bansal P. Legon W. (2016). Computational exploration of wave propagation and heating from transcranial focused ultrasound for neuromodulation. J. Neural Eng. 13 056002.

Ai L. Mueller J. Grant A. Eryaman A. Legon W. (2016). Transcranial Focused Ultrasound for BOLD fMRI Signal Modulation in Humans. EMBC 2016; 1758-1761. doi: 10.1109/embc.2016.7591057.

12. Legon W. Punzell S. Dowlati E. Adams SE. Stiles AB. Moran RJ. (2015). Altered prefrontal excitation/inhibition balance and prefrontal output: Markers of aging in human memory networks. Cer. Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhv200.

Neren D. Johnson MD. Legon W. Bachour SP. Ling G. Divani AA. (2015). Vagus nerve stimulation and other neuromodulation methods for treatment of traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care. doi: 10.1007/s12028-015-0203-0

Mueller J. Legon W. Tyler W.J. (2015).  Analysis of transcranial focused ultrasound beam profile sensitivity for neuromodulation of the human brain. arXiv: 1503.02019.

Opitz A. Legon W. Mueller J. Barbour A. Paulus W. Tyler W.J. (2015).  Is sham cTBS real cTBS? The effect on EEG dynamics. Front.Hum.Neurosci. 08 Jan 2015.

Mueller J. Legon W. Opitz A. Sato T.F. Tyler W.J. (2014).  Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates intrinsic and evoked EEG dynamics. Brain Stimul. 7,(6):900-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.08.008

Legon W. Sato T.F.  Opitz A.  Mueller J.  Barbour A. Williams A.  Tyler W.J.  (2014). Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates the activity of primary somatosensory cortex in humans. Nature Neuroscience. 17, 322-329. doi:10.1038/nn.3620

Legon W. Dionne J.K. and Staines W.R. (2013). Continuous theta burst stimulation of the supplementary motor area: effect upon perception and somatosensory & motor evoked potentials. Brain Stimul, Nov; 6 (6): 877-83. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2013.04.007

Opitz A. Legon W.  Rowlands  A. Paulus W. Bickel W. and Tyler W.J. (2013). Physiological observations validate finite element models for estimating subject-specific electric field distributions induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. NeuroImage, Nov 1; 81: 253-64. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.04.067