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Addiction Recovery Research Center

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About the Addiction Recovery Research Center

Addiction undermines health and safety, sometimes with fatal consequences. It damages families, friendships and livelihoods. At the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC, researchers work at the intersection of behavioral study and neuroscience to target the impaired decision-making processes of people with addictive behaviors to understand their self-control deficits. 

Contacts

  • Ruhi, P., Stein, J. S., Bickel, W. K. (under review).  Episodic future thinking specific to smoking-related illness:  Effects on delay discounting, cigarette demand, and cigarette craving.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.

  • Sullivan-Toole, H., Quisenberry, A. J., Bickel, W. K. (under review).  Perceived control in addiction recovery: The cross-domain internality-externality interaction that predicts abstinence.

  • Stein, J. S., Mellis, A. M., Wrenn, J. E., & Bickel, W. K. (under review). Negative income shock increases delay discounting and cigarette craving. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.

  •  Bickel, W. K., Stein, J. S., Paluch, R. A., Mellis, A. M., Athamneh, L. N., Quattrin, T., Greenawald, M. H., Bree, K. A., Gatchalian, K. M., Mastrandrea, L. D., Epstein, L. H.  (under review).  Episodic future thinking repairs immediacy bias at home and in the laboratory in patients with prediabetes.  Psychosomatic Medicine.

  • Mellis, A. M., Bickel, W. K. (under review).  Mechanical turk data collection in addiction research:  Utility, considerations and best practices.  Addiction.  Invited manuscript for Addiction Methods & Techniques Series.

  • Maricich, Y. A., Bickel, W. K., Marsch, L. A., Gatchalian, K., Botbyl, J., Luderer, H. F.  (under review).  Safety and efficacy of a prescription digital therapeutic (reSET-OÒ) as an adjunct to buprenorphine and standard of care for treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD).  American Journal on Addictions.

  • Tegge, A. N., Pope, D. A., Bhandari, S., Crawford, J., Franck, C. T., Chandrasekar, P., Fox, E. A., Reese, R. C., Koffarnus, M. N., Bickel, W. K.  (under review).  The role of homophily in driving activities among neighbors in a social network.  Scientific Reports.

  •  DeHart, W. B., Snider, S. E., Pope, D. A., Bickel, W. K.  (under revision).  Reinforcer pathology predicts maladaptive health and financial behaviors in obese individuals.  Health Psychology.

  • Bickel, W. K., Tegge, A. N., Carr, K. A., Epstein, L. H.  (under review).  Testing reinforcer pathology’s alternative reinforcer hypothesis.  Health Psychology, Special Issue.

  •  Athamneh, L. N., Brown, J., Stein, J. S., Gatchalian, K. M., LaConte, S. M., Bickel, W. K.  (under review).  Future thinking to decrease real-world drinking in alcohol use disorder: Repairing reinforcer pathology in a controlled, real-world trial.  JAMA Psychiatry.

  •  DeHart, W. B., Freitas Lemos, R., Tegge, A. N., Brown, A. T., Shields, P. G., Hatsukami, D. K., O’Connor, R. J., Bickel, W. K.  (under review).  Unventilated cigarette smokers discount money and cigarettes more than ventilated cigarette smokers.  Nicotine and Tobacco Research.

  •  Keith, D., Carges, E., Gellings-Lowe, N., Bickel, W. K.  (under review).  Fluency training in internet-based treatment of substance use disorder.  Addictive Behaviors.

  • Athamneh, L. N., DeHart, W. B., Pope, D. A., Mellis, A. M., Snider, S. E., Kaplan, B. A., Bickel, W. K. (2019). The phenotype of recovery III: Delay discounting predicts abstinence self-efficacy among individuals in recovery from substance use disorders. Psychiatry of Addictive Behaviors, 33(3), 310-317. doi: 10.1037/adb0000460. Epub 2019 Mar 21

  • Athamneh, L. N., Stein, J. S., Bickel, W. K.  (Aug-2019).  Narrative Theory III: Evolutionary Narratives Addressing Mating Motives Change Discounting and Tobacco Valuation.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.   Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000315

  • Bechara, A., Berridge, K. C., Bickel, W. K., Morón, J. A., Williams, S. B., Stein, J. S.  (2019-Oct).  A neurobehavioral approach to addiction: Implications for the opioid epidemic and the psychology of addiction.  Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 20(2), 96-127.   https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100619860513

  • Bickel, W. K., Athamneh, L. N.  (2019).  A reinforcer pathology perspective on relapse.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 113(1), 48-56.  Special Issue. https://doi.org/10.1002/jeab.564

  • Bickel, W. K., Athamneh, L. N., Basso, J. C., Mellis, A. M., DeHart, W. B., Craft, W. H., Pope, D. A.  (2019).   Excessive discounting of delayed reinforcers as a trans-disease process:  Update on the state of the science.  Current Opinion in Psychology, 30, 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.01.005

  • Bickel, W. K., Snider, S. E., & Mellis, A. M. (2019-July). Using an experimental medicine approach to identify novel determinants of addiction. Perspectives in Addiction Science, 42(3) 3853-396.  DOI: 10.1007/s40614-019-00215-0

  • Carroll, D. M., Strayer, L., Nardone, N., Pacek, L. R., Kozink, R. V., Tessier, K. McClernon, J. Benowitz, N., Bickel, W. K., Hatsukami, D. (2019).  Development and piloting testing of an Experimental Tobacco and Nicotine Product Marketplace.  Nicotine and Tobacco Research.  pii: ntz195. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntz195. [Epub ahead of print]         

  • Coughlin, L. N., Tegge, A. N., Sheffer, C., Bickel, W. K.  (2019).  A machine learning approach to predicting smoking cessation treatment outcomes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. nty259. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nty259

  • DeHart, W. B., Mellis, A. M., Kaplan, B. A., Pope, D. A., Bickel, W. K. (2019-Apr).  The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace: Narratives engage cognitive biases to increase electronic cigarette substitution.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 197,203-211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.020

  • Deshpande, H. U., Mellis, A. M., Lisinski, J. M., Stein, J. S., Koffarnus, M. N., Paluch, R., Schweser, F., Zivadinov, R., LaConte, S. M., Epstein, L. H., Bickel, W. K. (2019-June).  Reinforcer pathology: Common neural substrates for delay discounting and snack purchasing in prediabetics.  Brain and Cognition, 132, 80-88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2019.03.003

  • Ding, T., Bickel, W. K., Pan, S. (2019).  Predicting delay discounting from heterogeneous social media data.  Social Network Analysis and Mining.  9: 27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13278-019-0574-x

  • Epstein, L. H., Paluch, R. A., Stein, J. S., Mellis, A. M., Quattrin, T., Mastrandrea, L. D., Bree, K. A., Greenawald, M. H., Bickel, W. K.  (2019).  Role of delay discounting in predicting change in HBA1c for individuals with prediabetes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 42(5), 851-859.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00026-3

  • Franck, C. T., Koffarnus, M. N., McKerchar, T. L., Bickel, W. K.  (2019).  An overview of Bayesian reasoning in the analysis of delay-discounting data.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 111(2), 239-251,  DOI:  10.1002/jeab.504.

  • Kaplan, B. A., Pope, D. A., DeHart W. B., Stein, J. S., Bickel, W. K., Koffarnus, M. N. (2019-April). Estimating uptake for reduced-nicotine cigarettes using behavioral economics. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 5, 264-279.  DOI: 10.18001/TRS.5.3.5

  • Kim-Spoon, J., Lauharatanahirun, N., Peviani, K., Brieant, A. Deater-Deckard, K., Bickel, W. K., King-Casas, B.  (2019-Feb).  Longitudinal pathways linking family risk, neural risk processing, delay discounting, and adolescent substance use.  The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60:6, 655-664.  doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13015. 

  • Madden G. J., McClure S., Bickel W. K. (2019) Collaborating to Move the Laboratory Findings into Public Health Domains: Maxims for Translational Research. In: Hall K., Vogel A., Croyle R. (eds) Strategies for Team Science Success. Springer, Cham

  • Mellis, A. M., Snider, S. E., Deshpande, H. U., LaConte, S. M., Bickel, W. K. (2019-Nov.).  Practicing prospection promotes patience: Repeated episodic future thinking cumulatively reduces delay discounting. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.06.010.

  • O’Donnell, S., Daniel, T. O., Koroschetz, J., Kilanowski, C., Otminski, A., Bickel, W. K., Epstein, L. H. (2019).  Do process simulations during episodic future thinking enhance the reduction of delay discounting for middle income participants and those living in poverty?  Behavioral Decision Making, 32(3)  231-240.    https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.2108

  • Nighbor, T. D., Zvorsky, I., Kurti, A. N., Skelly, J. M., Bickel, W. K., Reed, D. D., Naudé , G. P., Higgins, S. T.  (2019).  Examining interrelationships between the Cigarette Purchase Task and delay discounting among pregnant women. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 111(3) 405-415.  doi: 10.1002/jeab.499. Epub 2019 Jan 25. 

  • Peviani, K. M., Kahn, R., Maciejewski, D., Bickel, W. K., Deater-Deckard, K., King-Casas, B., Kim-Spoon, J.  (2019-Apr). Intergenerational transmission of delay discounting:  The mediating role of household chaos.  Journal of Adolescence, 72, 83-90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.03.002

  • Phung, Q., Snider, S. E., Tegge, A. N., Bickel, W. K. (2019-May).  Willing to work but not to wait: Individuals with alcohol use disorder show increased delay discounting across commodities and less effort discounting for alcohol.  Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (ACER), 43 (5), 927-936.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13996

  • Pope, D. A., Poe, L., Stein, J. S., Kaplan, B. A., DeHart, W. B., Mellis, A. M., Heckman, B. W., Epstein, L. H., Chaloupka, F. J., Bickel, W. K. (2019-July). The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace: Demand and substitutability as a function of cigarette taxes and e-liquid subsidies. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntz116.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz116

  • Quisenberry, A. J., Pittman, J., Goodwin, R. D., Bickel, W. K., D’Urso, G., Sheffer, C. E.  (2019).  Smoking relapse risk is increased among individuals in recovery.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Sep 1, 202:93-103.  doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.07.001. Epub 2019 Jul 8 

  • Shevorykin, A., Pittman, J. C., Bickel, W. K., O’Connor, R. J., Malhotra, R., Prashad, N., Sheffer, C. E.  (2019-July).  Primed for health: Future thinking priming decreases delay discounting.  Health Behavior and Policy Review, 6(4) 363-377.  DOI: 10.14485/HBPR.6.4.5.

  • Snider, S. E., DeHart, W. B., Epstein, L. H., Bickel, W. K.  (2019).  Does delay discounting predict maladaptive health and financial behaviors in smokers?   Health Psychology, 38(1), 21.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000695

  • Snider, S. E., Mellis, A. M., Poe, L. M., Kocher, M. A., Turner, J. K., Bickel, W. K.  (2019-Sept.).  Reinforcer Pathology: Narrative of hurricane-associated loss increases delay discounting, demand, and consumption of highly palatable snacks in the obese.  Psychology of Addictive Behavior, Special Issue Honoring Nancy Petry. doi: 10.1037/adb0000498. [Epub ahead of print].  https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000498

  • Wang, T., Mellis, A. M., Lau, N., Bickel, W. K.  (2019). Integrating episodic future thinking into virtual reality to mitigate substance use disorders: A theoretical framework.  Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1071181319631026

  • Athamneh, L., Stein, M., Lin, E., Stein, J. S., Mellis, A., Gatchalian, K. M., Epstein, L. H., Bickel, W. K. (in press).  Setting a goal could help you control: Comparing the effect of health goal vs general episodic future thinking on health behaviors among cigarette smokers and obese individuals.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.

  • Epstein, L. H., Paluch, R., Stein, J. S., Quattrin, T., Mastrandrea, L. D., Bree, K. A., Sze, Y., Greenawald, M. H., Biondolilio, M. J, Bickel, W. K.  (in press).  Delay discounting, glycemic regulation and health behaviors in adults with prediabetes.  Behavioral Medicine.

  • Otto, M. W., Rosenfield, D., Gorlin, E I., Hoyt, D. L., Patten, E. A., Bickel, W. K., Zvolensky, M. J., Doan, S. N.  (in press)  Targeting cognitive and emotional regulatory skills for smoking prevention in low-SES youth: A randomized trial of mindfulness and working memory interventions.  Addictive Behaviors.

  •  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30265063

     

  • Berman, M. L., Bickel, W. K., Harris, A. C., LeSage, M. G., O'Connor, R. J.,  Stepanov, I., Shields, P. G., Hatsukami, D. K.  (2018). Consortium on Methods Evaluating Tobacco: Research Tools to Inform US Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Snus.  Nicotine an Tobacco Research, 2018 Sep 25;20(11):1292-1300. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx228.

  • Bickel, W. K., Crabbe, J. C., Sher, K. J.  (2018-Oct).  What is addiction? How can animal and human research be used to advance research, diagnosis, and treatment of alcohol and other substance use disorders?  Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.  2018 Oct 29. doi: 10.1111/acer.13912. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30371956

  • Bickel, W. K., Mellis, A. M., Snider, S. E., Athamneh, L. N., Stein, J. S., Pope, D. A. (2018-Jan.).  21st century neurobehavioral theories of decision making in addiction:  Review and evaluation.  Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 164, 4-21. PMID: 28942119 PMCID: PMC5747999. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2017.09.009

  • Bickel, W. K., Moody, L. N., Koffarnus, M. N., Thomas, J. G., Wing, R. (2018-May).  Self-control as measured by delay discounting is greater among successful weight losers than controls.  Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 41(6) 891-896.  PMID: 29766471 PMCID: PMC6237669 [Available on 2019-11-15] DOI: 10.1007/s10865-018-9936-5.

  • Bickel, W. K., Pope, D. A., Kaplan, B. A., DeHart, W. B., Koffarnus, M. N., Stein, J. S.  (2018-Apr). Electronic cigarette substitution in the experimental tobacco marketplace: A review.  Preventive Medicine, Special Issue. pii: S0091-7435(18)30137-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.04.026.

  • DeHart, W. B., Kaplan, B. A., Pope, D. A., Mellis, A. M., Bickel, W. K.  (2018-Aug).  The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace: Narrative influence on electronic cigarette substitution.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.  2018 Nov 5. doi: 10.1037/pha0000233. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30394764.  doi: 10.1037/pha0000233

  • Epstein, L. H., Paluch, R. A., Carr, K. A., Temple, J. L., Bickel W. K., MacKillop, J. (2018-Apr).  Reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral economic demand for food and their relation to BMI.  Eating Behaviors, 29:120-127. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2018.03.008.

  • Hall, P. A., Bickel, W. K., Erickson, K. I., Wagner, D.D. (2018-June). Neuroimaging, neuromodulation, and population health: The neuroscience of chronic disease prevention.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1428(1) 240-256.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13868

  • Hanlon, C. A., Phillip, N. S., Price, R., Bickel, W. K. (2018-Aug).  A case for the frontal pole as an empirically-derived neuromodulation treatment target.  Biological Psychiatry, 85(3):e13- e14. pii: S0006-3223(18)31666-4. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.07.002. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

  • Heckman, B. W., Cummings, K. M., Nahas, G. J., Willemsen, M. C., O’Connor, R. J., Borland, R., Hirsch, A. A., Bickel, W. K., Carpenter, M. J. (2018-Mar).  Behavioral economic purchase tasks to estimate demand for novel nicotine/tobacco products and prospectively predict future use:  Evidence from the Netherlands.  Nicotine &Tobacco Research.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nty042  [Epub ahead of print]

  • Heckman, B. W., Fong, G. T., Borland, R., Hitchman, S., O’Connor, R. J., Bickel, W. K., Stein, J. S., Yong, H., Nahhas, G. J., Pope, D. A., Shang, C., Cheng, K., Levy, D. T., Cummings, K. M.  (2018).  The influence of vaping and regulatory environment on cigarette demand: Behavioral economic perspective across four countries.  Addiction. DOI: 10.1111/add.14538

  • Humphreys, K. N., Bickel, W. K.  (2018-Sept).  Towards a neuroscience of long-term recovery from addiction.  JAMA Psychiatry, 75(9):875-876. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0956.

  • Koffarnus, M. N., Bickel, W. K., Kablinger, A. (2018-Oct).  Remote alcohol monitoring to facilitate incentive-based treatment for alcohol use disorder: A randomized trial.  Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 42(12). doi: 10.1111/acer.13891. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

  • Kwako, L. E., Bickel, W. K., Goldman, D.  (2018-Feb.).  Addiction biomarkers and dimensional approaches to understanding addiction.  Trends in Molecular Medicine, 24(2), 121-128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2017.12.007

  • Ma, L., Steinberg, J. L., Bjork, J. M., Keyser-Marcus, L., Vassileva, J., Zhu, M., Ganapathy, V., Wang, Q., Boone, E. L., Ferré, S., Bickel, W. K., Moeller, F. G., (2018-Aug).  Fronto-striatal effective connectivity of working memory in adults with cannabis use disorder. Psychiatry Research:  Neuroimaging, 278, 21-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2018.05.010

  • Mellis, A. M., Athamneh, L. N., Stein, J. S., Sze, Y. Y., Epstein, L. H., Bickel, W. K.  (2018-Oct).  Less is more: Negative income shock increases immediate preference in cross commodity discounting and food demand.  Appetite, 129, 155-161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.06.032

  • Mellis, A., Snider, S. E., Bickel, W. K. (2018-Jan.).  Narrative theory: II. Self-generated and experimenter-provided negative income shock narratives increase delay discounting.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Apr;26(2):113-118. doi: 10.1037/pha0000168. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

  • Moody, L. N., Tegge, A., Poe, L. M., Koffarnus, M. N., Bickel, W. K. (2018). To drink or to drink less?  Distinguishing between effects of implementation intentions on decisions to drink and how much to drink in treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorders.  Addictive Behaviors, 83, 64-71. Special Issue, pii: S0306-4603(17)30419-7. PMID: 29153992 DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.010

  • O’Donnell, S., Daniel, T. O., Koroschetz, J., Kilanowski, C., Otiminski, A., Bickel, W. K., Epstein, L. H.  (2018-Oct).  Do process simulations during episodic future thinking enhance the reduction of delay discounting for middle income participants and those living in poverty?  Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. DOI: 10.1002/bdm.2108

  • Pope, D. A., Poe, L., Stein, J. S., Kaplan, B. A., Heckman, B. W., Epstein, L. H., Bickel, W. K.  (2018). The experimental tobacco marketplace: Substitutability of e-cigarette liquid for cigarettes as a function of nicotine strength.  BMJ:  Tobacco Control, 28(2), 206-211.  doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054024

  • Pope, D. A., Poe, L., Stein, J. S., Snider, S. E., Bianco, A. G., Bickel, W. K. (2018-Nov).  Past and future preference reversals are predicted by delay discounting in smokers and non-smokers.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(1):19-28. doi:  10.1037/pha0000224. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

  • Sheffer, C. E., Bickel, W. K., Brandon, T. H., Franck, C. T., Deen, D., Panissidi, L., Abdali, S. A., Pittman, J. C., Lunden, S. E., Prashad, N., Malhotra, R., Mantovani, A.  (2018-Jan).  Preventing relapse to smoking with transcranial magnetic stimulation:  Feasibility and potential efficacy.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 182, 8-18.  PMID: 29120861 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.09.037 

  • Sheffer, C., Miller, A., Bickel, W. K., Devonish, J., O'Connor, R., Wang, K., Rivard, C., Bouchard, E. (2018-Dec.).  Delay discounting: A new therapeutic target in cancer survivorship care. Cancer, 124(24), 4711-4719.   https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31759

  • Sheffer, C. E., Miller, A., Bickel, W. K., Devonish, J. A., O'Connor, R. J., Wang, C., Rivard, C., Gage-Bouchard, E. A. (2018). The treasure of now and an uncertain future: Delay discounting and health behaviors among cancer survivors. Cancer, 124(24), 4711–4719. doi:10.1002/cncr.31759

  • Snider, S. E., Deshpande, H. U., Lisinski, J. M., Koffarnus, M. N., LaConte, S. M., Bickel, W. K.  (2018-Feb).  Working memory training improves alcohol users’ episodic future thinking: A rate dependent analysis.  Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 3(2) 160-167.   doi:10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.11.002.   PMID: 29529411.

  • Stein, J.  S., Heckman, B. W., Pope, D. A., Perry, E. S., Fong, G. T., Cummings, K. M.,  Bickel, W. K. (2018-Oct). Delay discounting and E-cigarette use: An investigation in current, former, and never cigarette smokers.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 191, 165-173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.06.034

  • Stein, J. S., Koffarnus, M. N., Stepanov, I., Hatsukami, D. K., Bickel, W. K. (2018). Cigarette and e-liquid demand and substitution in e-cigarette-naïve smokers.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26(3), 233-243. doi: 10.1037/pha0000192. PMID: 29863381.

  • Athamneh, L., Stein, J. S., Quisenberry, A. J., Pope, D., Bickel, W. K. (2017-October). The association between parental history and delay discounting among individuals in recovery from addiction.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 179, 153-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.06.037.

  • Berman, M. L., Bickel, W. K., Harris, A. C., LeSage, M. G., O’Connor, R. J., Stepanov, I., Shields, P. G., Hatsukami, D. K.  (2017-Oct.).  Consortium on methods evaluating tobacco:  Research tools to inform FDA regulation of Snus.  Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 20(11). ntx228, https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx228.

  • **This article was selected as an Editor’s Choice article in issue 20(11)**
  • Bickel, W. K., Moody, L. N., Eddy, C. R., Franck, C. T.  (2017-Aug).  Neurocognitive dysfunction in addiction: Testing hypotheses of diffuse versus selective phenotypic dysfunction with a classification-based approach. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(4), 322-332.   http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha000011

  • Bickel W. K., Moody, L., Snider, S. E., Mellis, A. M., Stein, J. S., Quisenberry, A. J.  (2017). The Behavioral Economics of Tobacco Products: Innovations in Laboratory Methods to Inform Regulatory Science (Invited Chapter). In Y. Hanoch, A. Barnes, T. Rice (Eds.)  Behavioral Economics and Health Behavior:  Key Concepts and Current Research. Routledge.  ISBN-13: 978-113863821

  • Bickel, W. K., Pope, D. A., Moody, L. N., Snider, S. E., Athamneh, L. N., Stein, J. S., Mellis, A. M. (2017-Mar). Decision-based disorders: The challenge of dysfunctional health behavior and the need for a science of behavior change.  Policy Insights from Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4(1), 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732216686085

  • Bickel, W. K., Snider, S. E., Quisenberry, A. J., Stein, J. S. (2017).  Reinforcer Pathology: The Behavioral Economics of Abuse Liability Testing.  Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 101, 185-187.  DOI: 10.1002/cpt.443.

  • Bickel, W. K., Stein, J. S., Moody, L. N., Snider, S. E., Mellis, A. M., Quisenberry, A. J.  (2017).  Toward narrative theory:  Interventions for reinforcer pathology in health behavior.  Impulsivity:   Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 64, 227-267.

  • Epstein, L. H., Stein, J. S., Paluch, R. A., MacKillop, J., Bickel, W. K. (2017-Aug). Binary components of food reinforcement:  Amplitude and persistence.  Appetite, 120(1), 67-74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.023

  • Heckman, B. W., Cummings, K. M., Hirsch, A. A., Quisenberry, A. J., Borland, R., O’Connor, R. J., Fong, G. T., & Bickel, W. K. (2017-July). A novel method for evaluating the acceptability of substitutes for cigarettes: The experimental tobacco marketplace. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 3(3), 266-279. https://doi.org/10.18001/TRS.3.3.3

  • Heckman, B. W., MacQueen, D., Martinez, N., MacKillop, J., Bickel, W. K., Brandon, T. (2017).  Self-control depletion and nicotine deprivation as precipitants of smoking cessation failure: A human laboratory model.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Apr. Vol. 85(4), 381-396. DOI: 10.1037/ccp0000197.

  • Kim-Spoon, J., Deater-Deckard, K., Lauharatanahirun, N., Farley, J. P., Chiu, P. H., Bickel, W. K.,  King-Casas, B. (2017-Sept).  Neural interaction between risk sensitivity and cognitive control predicting health risk behaviors among late adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27(3) 674-682.  PMCID: PMC5549676.   doi: 10.1111/jora.12295. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

  • Kim-Spoon, J., **Kahn, R. E., *Lauharatanahirun, N., **Deater-Deckard, K., Bickel, W. K., Chiu, P. H., & King-Casas, B. (2017-June). Executive functioning and substance use in adolescence: Neurobiological and behavioral perspectives. Neuropsychologia, 100, 79-92. PMCID: PMC5518609 (** = equal contribution) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.04.020

  • Koffarnus, M. N., Deshpande, H. U., Lisinski, J. M., Eklund, A., Bickel, W. K., LaConte, S. M.  (2017-Aug).  An adaptive, individualized fMRI delay discounting procedure to increase flexibility and optimize scanner time.  NeuroImage, 161, 56-66. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.08.024.  PMID: 28803942.

  • Mellis, A. M., Woodford, A. E., Stein, J. S., Bickel, W. K.  (2017-Jan). A second type of magnitude effect: Reinforcer magnitude differentiates delay discounting between substance users and controls. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 107(1), 151–160. doi:10.1002/jeab.235.

  • Moody, L. N., Bickel, W. K. (2017-Apr). Cross-commodity delay discounting of alcohol and money in alcohol users: Evidence of differential valuation systems across commodities.  The Psychological Record, 67, 285-292.  DOI: 10.1007/s40732-017-0245-0

  • Moody, L. N., Poe, L. M., Bickel, W. K.  (2017-Oct).  Toward a laboratory model for psychotherapeutic treatment screening: Implementation intentions and incentives for abstinence in an analogue of smoking relapse.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(5), 373-379. doi: 10.1037/pha0000136.

  • Moody, L., Satterwhite, E., Bickel, W. K.  (2017-Apr). Substance use in rural Central Appalachia: Current status and treatment considerations.  Journal of Rural Mental Health, 41(2), 123-135.  PMID: 29057030 PMCID: PMC5648074 [Available on 2018-04-01] DOI: 10.1037/rmh0000064

  • Quisenberry, A. J., Koffarnus, M. N., Epstein, L. H., Bickel, W. K. (2017-Sept).  The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace II: Substitutability and sex effects in dual electronic cigarette and conventional cigarette users.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 178, 551-555.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.06.004

  • Sheffer, C. E., Bickel, W. K, Franck, C. T., Panissidi, L., Pittman, J., Stayna, H., Evans, S.  (2017-Dec). lmproving tobacco dependence treatment outcomes for smokers of lower socioeconomic status:  A randomized clinical trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 181, 177-185.  PMID: 29065390 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.09.015

  • Snider, S. E., Cummings, M., Bickel, W. K. (2017-Aug).  Behavioral economic substitution between conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes differs as a function of the frequency of e-cigarette use.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 177, 14-22.  doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.03.017.

  • Stein, J. S., Koffarnus, M. N., O’Connor, R. J., Hatsukami, D. K., Bickel, W. K. (2017-July).  Effects of filter ventilation on behavioral economic demand for cigarettes:  A preliminary investigation.  Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1-5.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx164.  PMID:  29065197.

  • Stein, J. S., Sze, Y. Y., Athamneh, L., Koffarnus, M. N., Epstein, L. H., Bickel, W. K. (2017-Oct).  Think fast: Rapid assessment of the effects of episodic future thinking on delay discounting in overweight/obese participants.  Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 40(5) 832-838.  doi: 10.1007/s10865-017-9857-8. PMID:  28508382

  • Stein, J. S., Wilson, A. G., Koffarnus, M. N., Judd, M. C., Bickel, W. K. (2017).  Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.  Psychopharmacology, 234(2) 245-254. DOI:  10.1007/s00213-016-4455-y

  • Sze, Y. Y, Slaven, E. M., Bickel, W. K., Epstein, L. H. (2017). Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss.  Obesity Science & Practice, Mar. 3(1), 69-74.  doi: 10.1002/osp4.72. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

  • Bickel, W. K., Snider, S. E., Quisenberry, A. J., Stein, J. S., Hanlon, C. A. (2016) (Invited chapter). Competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory of cocaine addiction: From mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. In H. Ekhtiari & M. Paulus, Eds. Progress in Brain Research.  (First Edit, Vol. 223, pp. 269-293. Amsterdam: Elsevier. http://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.08.002.

  • Bickel, W. K., Wilson, A. G., Chen, C., Koffarnus, M. N., Franck, C. T.  (2016). Stuck in Time:  Negative income shock constricts the temporal window of valuation spanning the future and the past.  PLOS ONE. 2016 Sep 15;11(9):e0163051 doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0163051.

  • Daniel, T. O., Sawyer, A., Dong, Y., Bickel, W. K., Epstein, L. H.  (2016).  Remembering versus imagining:  When does episodic retrospection and episodic prospection aid decision making?  Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5(3), 352-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2016.06.005

  • Jarmolowicz, D. P., Bickel, W. K., Sofis, M. J., Hatz, L. E., Muller, E. T. (2016). Sunk costs, psychological symptomology, and help seeking. SpringerPlus., 5(1): 1699.  DOI 10.1186/s40064-016-3402-z. 

  • Koffarnus, M. N., Johnson, M. W., Thompson-Lake, D. G. Y., Wesley, M. J., Lohrenz, T., Montague, P. R., Bickel, W. K. (2016). Cocaine-dependent adults and recreational cocaine users are more likely than controls to choose immediate unsafe sex over delayed safer sex. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Aug; 24(4):297-304. doi: 10.1037/pha0000080.

  • Moody, L. & Bickel, W. K. (2016). Substance use and addictions. In J. Luiselli & A. Fisher (Eds.). Computer-Assisted and Web-Based Innovations in Psychology, Special Education, and Health. Oxford: Elsevier.  ISBN: 978-0-12-802075-3.

  • OConnor, R. J., Heckman, B. W., Adkison, S .E., Rees, V. W., Hatsukami, D. K., Bickel, W. K., Cummings, K. M. (2016-Jun).  Persistence and amplitude of cigarette demand in relation to quit intentions and attempts.  Pschopharmacology, 233(12):2365-71. doi: 10.1007/s00213-016-4286-x. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

  • Otto, M. W., Eastman, A., Lo, S., Hearon, B. A., Bickel, W. K., Zvolensky, M., Smits, J. A. J., Doan, S. N. (2016). Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion. Clinical Psychology Review 49:67-78.  doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.07.003. Epub 2016 Jul 26

  • Quisenberry, A. J., Bianco, A., Gatchalian, K. M., Kim-Spoon, J., Bickel, W. K. (2016).  The temporal window of valuation is constricted among adolescent smokers.  Behavioural Processes, 132, 29-33.

  • Snider, S. E., LaConte. S., Bickel, W. K. (2016). Episodic future thinking: Expansion of the temporal window in individuals with alcohol dependence. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Jul;40(7):1558-66. doi: 10.1111/acer.13112.

  •  Stein, J. S., Wilson, A. G., Koffarnus, M. N., Daniel, T. O., Epstein, L. H., & Bickel, W. K. (2016). Unstuck in time: Episodic future thinking reduces delay discounting and cigarette smoking. Psychopharmacology, 233(21), 3771-3778.

  • Bickel, W. K., Quisenberry, A. J., & Snider, S. E. (2016). Does Impulsivity Change Rate Dependently Following Stimulant Administration? A Translational Selective Review and Re-analysis Psychopharmacology, 233, 1-18. doi: 10.1007/s00213-015-4148-y

  • Bickel, W. K., Snider, S. E., Quisenberry, A. J., Stein, J. S., & Hanlon, C. (2016). Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems Theory: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities. Progress in Brain Research: Neuroscience for Addiction Medicine: From Prevention to Rehabilitation – Constructs and Drugs, 223, 269 – 293. doi: http://dx.doi.org/
    10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.07.009

  • Wilson, A. G., Franck, C. T., Koffarnus, M. N., Bickel, W. K. (2016). Behavioral economics of cigarette purchases: Within-subject comparison of real, potentially real, and hypothetical cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 18(5), DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntv154.

  • Moody, L., Franck, C. T., Bickel, W. K. (2016). Comorbid depression, antisocial personality, & substance dependence: Effects on delay discounting. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.01.009.

  • Bickel, W. K., Mellis, A. M., Snider, S. E., Moody, L., Stein, J. S., Quisenberry, A. J. (in press). Novel therapeutics for addiction: Behavioral- and neuro-economic approaches. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry.

  • Moody, L. & Bickel, W. K. (in press). Computer-Assisted and Web-Based Innovations in Psychology: Substance Use and Addictions. In J. Luiselli & A. Fisher (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

  • Quisenberry, A. J., Snider, S. E., Bickel, W. K. (in press). The return of rate dependence: Identifying an alternative source of variability. Commentary submitted to Behavior Analysis section of Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice.

  • Sheffer, C. E., MacKillop, J., Fernandez, A., Christensen, D., Bickel, W. K., Johnson, M. W., Panissidi, L., Pittman, J., Franck, C. T., Williams, J., Mathew, M. (in press). Initial examination of priming tasks to decrease delay discounting. Behavioural Processes.

  • Snider, S. E., LaConte. S., Bickel, W. K. (in press). Episodic future thinking: Expansion of the temporal window in individuals with alcohol dependence. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.

  • Bickel, W. K., MacKillop, J., Madden, G. J., Odum, A. L., Yi, R. (2015). Experimental Manipulations of Delay Discounting and Related Processes: An Introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 103(1), 1-9. DOI: 10.1002/jeab.133.

  • Bickel, W. K., Moody, L., Quisenberry, A.J. (2015). Computerized working-memory training as a candidate adjunctive treatment for addiction. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 36(1), 123-126.

  • Bickel, W. K., Mueller, E. T., MacKillop, J., & Yi, R. (2015). Behavioral economics and neuro-economic perspectives on addiction. In K. Sher (Ed). The Oxford Handbook of Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders (Volume 1). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780199381678. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199381678.001.0001.

  • Bickel, W. K., Quisenberry, A. J., Moody, L., Wilson, A. G. (2015). Therapeutic opportunities for self-control repair in addiction and related disorders: Change and the limits of change in trans-disease processes. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(1), 140-153. doi: 10.1177/2167702614541260.

  • Bickel, W. K., Quisenberry, A. J., Snider, S. E. (2015). Does impulsivity change rate dependently following stimulant administration? A translational selective review and re-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 233(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1007/s00213-015-4148-y.

  • Budney, A. J., Marsch, L. A., Bickel, W.K. (2015). Computerized therapies in the treatment of substance use disorders: Toward an Addiction Treatment Technology Test. In N. el-Guebaly, G. Carrà and M. Galanter (Eds). Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives. Springer Milan Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London. ISBN-13: 978-8847053212 ISBN-10: 8847053218.

  • Evans, S. D., Sheffer, C. E., Bickel, W. K., Cottoms, N., Olson, M., Panissidi, L., Austin, T., Stayna, H., Sanborn, V. (2015). The process of adapting the evidence-based treatment for tobacco dependence for smokers of lower socioeconomic status. Addiction Research & Therapy, 6(1), 219. DOI: 10.4172/2155-6105.1000219.

  • Franck, C.T., Koffarnus, M. N., House, L. L., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Accurate characterization of delay discounting: A multiple model approach using approximate Bayesian model selection and a unified discounting measure. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 103(1), 218-233. ISSN: 1938-3711 (Electronic) 0022-5002 (Linking). DOI: 10.1002/jeab.128.

  • Hamilton, K. R., Mitchell, M. R., Wing, V. C., Balodis, I. M., Bickel, W. K., Fillmore, M., Lane, S. D., Lejuez, C. W., Littlefield, A.,K., Luijten, M., Mathias, C. W., Mitchell, S. H., Napier, T. C., Reynolds, B., Schütz, C. G., Setlow, B., Sher, K. J., Swann, A. C., Tedford, S. E., White, M. J., Winstanley, C., Yi, R., Potenza, M. N., Moeller, F. G. (2015). Choice impulsivity: Definitions, measurement issues, and clinical implications. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment, 6(2), 182-198. ISSN: 1949-2723 (Electronic). DOI: 10.1037/per0000099.

  • Higgins, S. T., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Substance Use Disorders: A Theoretical Framework. In I. P. Stolerman and L. H. Price (Eds). Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology, Second Edition, Berlin, DE, Springer‐Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-36171-5.

  • Jarmolowicz, D. P., Reed, D. D., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Neuroeconomics: Implications for understanding and treating addictive behavior. In S. Feldstein Ewing, K. Witkiewitz, and F. Filbey (Eds). Neuroimaging and Psychosocial Addiction Treatment: An Integrative Guide for Researchers and Clinicians. Palgrave. ISBN: 9781137362643

  • Jarmolowicz, D. P., Reed, D. D., Reed, F. D., Bickel, W. K. (2015). The behavioral and neuroeconomics of reinforcer pathologies: Implications for managerial and health decision making. Managerial and Decision Economics. Published online May 2015. DOI: 10.1002/mde.2716.

  • Kim-Spoon, J., McCullough, M. E., Bickel, W. K., Farley, J. P., & Longo, G. S. (2015). Longitudinal associations among religiousness, delay discounting, and substance use initiation in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25(1), 36-43. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12104.

  • Koffarnus, M. N., Franck, C. T., Stein, J. S., Bickel, W. K. (2015). A modified exponential behavioral economic demand model to better describe consumption data. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23(6),504-512. doi: 10.1037/pha0000045.

  • Koffarnus, M. N., Wilson, A. G., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Effects of experimental income on demand for potentially real cigarettes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 17(3), 292-298. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntu139.

  • MacKillop, J., Gray, J. C., Bidwell, L. C., Bickel, W. K., Sheffer, C., McGeary, J. E. (2015). Genetic influences on delay discounting in smokers: Examination of a priori candidates and exploration of dopamine-related haplotypes. Psychopharmacology, 232, 3731-3739. doi: 10.1007/s00213-015-4029-4.

  • Moody, L., Franck, C. T., Hatz, L., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Impulsivity and polysubstance use: A systematic comparison of delay discounting in mono, dual, and tri-substance use. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. PMID: 26691847.

  • Quisenberry, A. J., Eddy, C. R., Patterson, D. L., Franck, C. T., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Regret expression and social learning increases delay to sexual gratification. PLOS One, 10 (8), e0135977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135977.

  • Quisenberry, A. J., Koffarnus, M. N., Hatz, L., Bickel, W. K. (2015). The experimental tobacco marketplace: Substitutability as a function of the price of conventional cigarettes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv230.

  • Stein, J. S., Koffarnus, M. N., Snider, S. E., Quisenberry, A. J., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Identification and management of nonsystematic purchase-task data: Towards best practice. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23(5), 377-386. doi: 10.1037/pha0000020.

  • Thomas, J. G., Seiden, A., Koffarnus, M. N., Bickel, W. K., Wing, R. R. (2015). Delayed reward discounting and grit in men and women with and without obesity. Obesity Science & Practice, 1(2),131-135. doi: 10.1002/osp4.12.

  • Wilson, A. G., Franck, C. T., Mueller, E. T., Landes, R. D., Kowal, B. P., Yi, R., Bickel, W. K. (2015). Predictors of delay discounting among smokers: Education and a utility measure of cigarette reinforcement efficacy are better predictors than demographics, smoking characteristics, executive functioning, or time perception. Addictive Behaviors, 45, 124-133. DOI: 0.1016/j.addbeh.2015.01.027. Epub 2015 Jan 22. PMID: 25661991.

  • Worley, M., Shoptaw, S. J., Bickel, W. K., Ling, W. (2015). Using behavioral economics to predict opioid use during prescription opioid dependence treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 148, 62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.018. Epub 2014 Dec 30. PMID: 25622776.

Behavioral Economics - A new field in the scientific world that unites the behavior analysis subfield of psychology with economic models of purchasing and consumption. This provides powerful tools for predicting and manipulating health-related and drug abuse behaviors.

Biometrics - Confirmation of self-report is frequently combined with quickly administered biometrics such as Carbon Monoxide or alcohol levels in the breath, and Cotinine present in urine. Heart rate and blood pressure may also be used to determine cue reactivity and monitor ongoing participant safety. 

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)- fMRI measures changes in the properties of blood throughout the brain. In general, the more a brain area is being used, the more oxygen it needs for energy. As hemoglobin in the blood releases oxygen for energy, an indirect measure of brain activity is obtained. Measuring these functional changes during various types of tasks, together with structural MRI data, can reveal compromised brain function in important brain areas related to addiction.

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), also known as diffusion MRI, measures the movement of molecules, mainly water, throughout the body. In the brain, water movement can serve as an indirect measure of tissue integrity.

Bar Laboratory - Pioneered by Dr. James MacKillop, this laboratory space replicates the look and feel of a small private bar. Participants are monitored as they self-administer alcohol within a controlled but realistic environment. This transforms predicted behavior from modeled theory to real world observation of live exhibited behavior. 

Smoking Laboratory - A negative air-flow room with behavioral booths that allows for participants to self-administer nicotine containing products including cigarettes while taking behavioral assessments. Much like the bar lab, the smoking lab allows observation of real time consumption behaviors.

Remote Survey - Tools like Amazon’s Mechanical Turk or our own Quit and Recovery Registry can help rapidly administer surveys to a broad and widespread sample. The Registry focuses on studying people who have recovered from drug abuse habits and hopes to shed light on factors that contribute towards success in that process.  

Brain Stimulation Approaches - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)- uses electromagnetic induction to increase or decrease brain activity in specific cortical areas. Understanding natural functional processes can help guide TMS stimulation parameters in effort to establish or reestablish healthy brain function in individuals suffering from addiction. TMS is currently FDA approved as a treatment for depression and anxiety. Our lab utilizes cutting edge TMS procedures pioneered by Dr. Coleen Hanlon.

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) - tDCS works by sending constant, low direct current through the electrodes positioned on the surface of the head. This current flow can either increase or decrease neuronal excitability and alter brain activity.

Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) - Similar to tDCS, tACS passes current between electrodes positioned outside the head. In this case, however, the alternating current applied is sinusoidal.

Why do some people overcome addiction while others relapse? To gain insights into recovery, we launched the International Quit & Recovery Registry, which taps the wisdom and experiences of those in recovery from an addiction. With their help, the Addiction Recovery Research Center will advance the science of recovery and translate these insights into new treatments.

International Quit & Recovery Registry

A great deal of research has focused on understanding addiction and developing more effective addiction treatments, yielding a wealth of new knowledge in these areas. However, very little research has been directed towards those people who are in recovery from an addiction, particularly towards those people who quit engaging in their addiction on their own without professional treatment. The International Quit & Recovery Registry enables those who have recovered from an addiction to share their stories and make themselves available to be contacted for future research on individuals in recovery.

 

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